Special Terms Of Mining Engineering - Part 3
Vertical Shaft : A shaft perpendicular (at a right angle) to the surface; mines with access through vertical shafts are shaft mines.
Inclined Shaft : A shaft at an angle to the surface; also known as a slop shaft. Mines with access through inclined shafts are slop mines.
Drift : A horizontal shaft at an underground working level. Mines with access through horizontal shafts are drift mines.
Headframe : A steel or timber frame at the top of a shaft; it carries the sheave or pulley for hoisting rope and serves various other purposes such as lifting and transferring ore.
Cage : An elevator that lowers and brings up mine personnel.
Skip Hoist : An elevator, shaped like a bucket, used to raise mined ore to the surface.
Sump : A pit where water collects at the bottom of a shaft.
Crosscut : A tunnel connecting drifts, usually at right angles to them.
Raise : A shaft driven upward from a drift.
Winze (pronounced winz) : A shaft driven downward from a drift.
Stope : The area from which ore is being or has been removed; it is the basid productive area of the mine.
Continuous Miner : A machine with cutting edges to break up soft or weak mineral deposits and remove them in continuous operation.
Blastholes : Holes drilled into the face of a mineral deposit; explosives are placed in the holes.
Bit : The cutting edge of a drill.
Jackhammer : A hand-held pneumatic drill.
Jumbo : A machine mounted with several drills known as drifters.
Haulage : Means of moving ore, supplies, and personnel from the mine.
Methane : An inflammable gas released by coal.
Stabilization : The system of support used in a mine to prevent rock slides or cave-ins.
Timbering : A stabilization system that uses timbers (heavy beams of wood).
Hydraulic Jack : A device for raising or lifting a heavy weight; it is operated by water or another fluid.
Overhand Stoping : Working the mineral deposit from a lower to an upper level; the opposite, from upper to lower, is underhand stoping.
Breast Stoping : Working the deposit horizontally.
Rill Stoping : Working the deposit at an angle to its face.
Open Stope : A roomlike stope where the ceiling rock can be supported by columns of the ore being mined; also called room and pillar mining.
Robbing : Removing pillars of ore that have been left as supports in an open stope; afterward, the stope is allowed to cave in.
Timbered Stope : A stope supported by beams of timber.
Filled Stope : A stope temporarily supported by timbers but afterwards filled in with waste material.
Shrinkage Stope : A stope in which broken-up ore is left to serve as a platform for mining the ore above.
Caving : A system of mining in which ore is made to cave in on mined chambers or shafts below the deposit.